is a term that describes symptoms (most commonly dark, sunken spots on
the leaves) present in several plant diseases arising from infection by
one of several different fungi that affect a wide variety of plants ranging
from beans and grapes to sycamore and other trees. Anthracnose occurs in
both deciduous and evergreen trees and shrubs. In deciduous plants, it
is most severe in areas where prolonged spring rains occur after new growth.
of peoples of the past, their lives, cultures, communities, and technologies
usually by excavation and examination of objects (artifacts) such as tools,
houses, and food remains
is the study of an individual organism and its relation to its environment
and other individuals. It is the ecology of an individual—how the individual
responses physically to the environment, its behavior, and relations to
|The term ‘barrens’ describes a variety of open-canopied forests with understories of grasses and prairie plants. They are a unique combination of forest (oak) opening and prairie surrounded by dry or mesic upland forests with greater canopy cover. Both barrens and savannas have widely spaced trees and understories of grasses, but whereas savannas occur on a range of soils from nutrient poor to nutrient rich, barrens are restricted to poor, thin, excessively drained soils.
to the study of living organisms
is an eroded section of a sand dune that is otherwise stabilized by vegetation.
The erosion usually arises from some disturbance or removal of the vegetation,
such as grazing or destructive recreational activities.
forest is a cold-temperate forest dominated mostly by conifers (spruce,
fir, etc.). It may also contain some broad-leaved deciduous trees such
as birch. The boreal forest is circumpolar—it stretches around the globe.
It is located between the northern tundra and the southern temperate mixed
forests or steppe. In Europe and Asia, the boreal forest is also referred
to as the Taiga. Winters are long and cold in the boreal forest, lasting
from 6 to 9 months.
the term is used to describe the flared bases of the trunks of trees such
as bald cypress or tupelo gum.
is an area of non-specialized cells that can develop into any type of tissue.
It produces new tissue as parallel layers of cells that increase the diameter
of the tree.
cambium [n] - The vascular cambium is a thin layer of undifferentiated
cells. The outermost cells (phloem) conduct nutrients from the leaves throughout
the rest of the tree.
cambium [n] - the cambium cells that divide to form bark
forest layer of foliage (leaves) consisting sometimes of tops (crowns)
of individual trees whose branches cross each other
are compact, drooping clusters of tiny flowers. They are usually either
male or female. When there are only flowers of one sex, the males are usually
a bit larger. Catkins are most obvious in willows and their relatives and
are recognized as drooping and caterpillar-shaped.
dominance, of equal importance
an oak-hickory forest might be dominated by both oak and hickory.
'communities' are collections of different plant species that occur with
one another under similar conditions (ecological, geological, hydrological,
and geographical). Typically, communities are specific collections of organisms
that interact with one another and the environment and are recognized in
other locations in the world.
consists of the spreading upper branches and associated leaves of a tree.
cultural describes human activities that are learned behaviors, such as
language, customs, and education.
that sheds its leaves seasonally
are tiny one-celled algae that live in marine or fresh water. They possess
a bivalve shell (two overlapping shells) made largely of silica (the major
component of sand).
|Disturbance is a general term for a disruption of the natural environment. Disturbances in ecosystems can be the result of from human activity or natural phenomena.
refers to the number of species types in a community. A richly diverse
community would have many different types of organisms.
vegetation consists of the plants that have the most influence and (sometimes)
are the most abundant and occupy the most space in a community.
long period of dryness in an otherwise favorable climate
is the study of the interrelationships among organisms and the relationships
and interactions of organisms with their environment. Ecology comes from
the Greek for "dwelling place" or house.
community of living organisms and their non-living environment
has distinctive features related to the organisms present and their relationship
to that environment.
are herbaceous plants that complete their life cycles very quickly when
conditions are best for growth and reproduction. Examples of ephemerals
are spring woodland flowers such as trout lily (Erythronium) that
grow and flower in the spring before the trees leaf out and shade them.
that retains green leaves all year
of cleared land, water (streams, lakes, ponds), or surface features (cliffs,
dry ridges, etc.) that prevents the spread of fire
prevention of naturally occurring fires
settlers sought to stop fires in savanna and prairie ecosystems in an effort
to protect their crops and homes
devoted to the growth of crops for food for livestock
(non-woody) plants that are non-grassy
occur in the ground layer in forests.
that has been deposited by a glacier
form in glacial drift when glacial ice (ice block) melts and leaves a usually
steep-sided depression, which may or may not fill with water to form a
drift deposited away from the glacial by meltwater streams coming from
|glacial till [n]
|sand, pebbles, and boulders deposited by a glacier
is a climate-controlled place where plants are preserved (pressed on acid-free
herbarium paper), stored and cataloged (according to family, genus, species,
etc.) Also included is information on their date and place of collection,
and collector. Herbaria are extremely important for taxonomic work.
that eat only plants
in which items/organisms are ranked to form a characteristic 'family tree'
are arranged into groups based on a system going from more inclusive to
less inclusive characteristics. An example of a list arraged in this way
is: tree, oak, red oak.
to the flow of water through land and air environments, which include surface
waters (lakes and streams), oceans, and ice caps
|The layer is so compact and hard that it is almost impossible for rain water to go through it.
of a glacier in which there is a temporary retreat of the ice
of tools used for observation, measurement, or control
varieties of the same element (carbon, for example) whose nuclei have the
same number of protons and electrons, but different numbers of neutrons.
used to describe the influence of seasonal changes and climate on the appearance
deciduous leaves vs. evergreen leaves.
is a type of soil that consists of clay, silt, sand, and organic matter.
Water trickles down through this soil. It is a rich soil, typically good
for plant growth.
in which something is embedded
plant is one that is adapted to environments that are neither dry nor wet
(meso- means in the middle)
of chemical changes in cells that create energy for activities such as
processing nutrients and growth
deposited when a glacier is melting as fast as it is advancing
describes an area including South and Central America, Southern Mexico,
the West Indies, and the Galapagos Islands. These regions have a distinctive
set of plants and animals.
carbon from living organisms
also called 'seed shrimp', are a group of marine or freshwater crustaceans.
Their bodies are enclosed in bivalve, rounded or elliptical shells, the
outermost layer of which is composed mostly of calcium carbonate.
are over 2000 species of living ostracodes and many that are know from
fossils. They are good paleo-indicators as the different species have distinctive
to the study of fossil plants and animals
is an open woodland with widely scattered trees and a grass or sedge understory.
science, this term refers to water that is isolated above the groundwater
by a layer of rock or organic material.
downward through a porous material such as soil or gravel
plant is one that lives year after year and typically produces flowers
annually after two years.
is the process by which green plants convert light energy to chemical energy.
Carbon dioxide, water, and energy absorbed by chlorophyll from the sunlight
are used to produce carbohydrates. This energy is then used for plant growth
refers to overall structure or physical appearance - what the community
and its dominant species look like, their height and spacing (height and
canopy cover), and shape. It is descriptive of the life forms of the dominant
species, for example, their size, leaf traits, and phenology (deciduous,
of features and phenomena, such as the relief, lakes or other landforms
in a given geographic region
|Physiology is the study of the processes and functions of living organisms and how these change during growth and under changing environmental conditions.
plant that contains male genetic material, which when combined with female
genetic material, creates a seed
Peninsula is a wedge of grassland projecting eastward from the Great Plains
into the Midwest. It stretches from western Iowa to Indiana, with outlying
extensions as far east as Ohio. Deciduous forest occurs both north and
south of the Prairie Peninsula. Tall Grass Prairie, which takes its name
from tall grasses such as big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii) and
Indian grass (Sorhgastrum nutans) dominated the Prairie Peninsula.
refers to wet atmospheric deposition. This includes rain, snow, sleet.
which serve as a substitute for data that cannot be obtained directly
deductions can be made from proxy data that relates to the evidence, situation,
or problem being studied.
based upon the rate of decay of carbon 14 when an organism (plant or animal)
|to grow again, or to successfully produce offspring (new trees) that grow to maturity and reproduce
|relict species [n]
|A relict species is one that has survived periods of unfavorable conditions (e.g. glaciations, floods, drought) when other, related species became extinct. Relict species usually persist in very localized areas (called refugia areas where they can still grow) whereas they were more widely distributed in the past.
|root sprout [n]
|new groth is initiated from the base of the tree, resulting in mutlibple trunks
|A savanna is a forest type with widely spaced trees and an understory of grasses and other forbs that require high levels of light.
of very fine sediments
of soil that is distinctive from the one above or below it
are more or less parallel to the soil surface and are usually distinguishable
based on physical and biological processes, parent material, weather, age,
dry, level, grassland having few or no trees
openings in the upper tissues of the leaf through which gases (carbon dioxide,
oxygen, water vapor) are exchanged
layer just below the uppermost canopy layer (treetops exposed directly
consists of older trees, young trees, and shrubs, the growth of which has
been limited by shade.
formed or expanded by the melting of the surrounding frozen ground
lakes can form in areas of permafrost when it melts and the ice in the
ground succumbs to thermal erosion by the lake water.
features of a region, such as hills, mountains, valleys and the configuration
or contour of these features
is the flow of water through the plant as it takes it up through the roots
from the soil, up through the stem to the leaves, where it evaporates through
the stomata (small holes in the leaf surface).
transpiration is a source of water loss in plants, it also serves to transport
minerals and nutrients within the plant, and cools the leaves.
is used here to describe tropical rain forests, which occur in the lowlands
around the equator. They are characterized by many vines and epiphytes
(plants that live on other plants), and trees that flower, fruit, and have
leaves all year.
plain in the arctic and antarctic dominated by sedges, rushes, and wood
rushes along with perennial herbs, small woody shrubs, mosses, and lichens
and shrubs of the layer immediately beneath the canopy in a forest