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      American Indian Tribes of Illinois

Pah-me-cow-ee-tah, or Man who Tracks, a Peoria Illinois chief. Oil on canvas by George Catlin in the Fort Leavenworth area, 1830. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

Ah-tee-wat-o-mee, a Kickapoo woman. Oil on canvas by George Catlin in the Fort Leavenworth area, 1830. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

Kee-o-kuk, or The Running Fox, a Sauk chief. Oil on canvas by George Catlin at Sauk and Fox village, 1835. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

Native American tribal boundaries, 1700-1769. Map by James S. Oliver, Illinois State Museum. After: Helen H. Tanner. 1987. Atlas of Great Lakes Indian history. University of Oklahoma Press, Norman. (Maps 9, 13)

The Illinois Country

Detail from "Carte de la Louisiane et du cours du Mississipi." Map by Guillaume Delisle, 1718. Courtesy of Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library, Ithaca, New York (Rare UA 993 C18++, No 30C2, Campaigns in North America).

Climate
Storm over the Mississippi #2. Silver gelatin print by Michael Johnson, 1982. (© Michael Johnson). From: The Living Museum, 1984, Vol. 46, No. 3.

Generalized trends in global temperature during the past 1,000 years. Courtesy of Oxford University Press, New York. From: Jean M. Grove. 1996. Little ice ages. In Encyclopedia of climate and weather, Vol. 2, edited by Stephen H. Schneider, pp. 475-478. Oxford University Press, New York. (P. 477)

Land
Herd of buffalo. Watercolor by Seth Eastman, 19th century. Courtesy of Edward E. Ayer Collection, The Newberry Library, Chicago.

Shaded relief map of land in and near Illinois. Map by James S. Oliver, Illinois State Museum.

Water
Mississippi River 70 miles above St. Louis--Looking north. Watercolor by Seth Eastman, 1846-1848. Courtesy of Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.

Major rivers in the North American Midwest. Map by James S. Oliver, Illinois State Museum.

Plants
Upland prairie at the Midewin National Tallgrass Prairie, Will County, Illinois. Photograph by Pietra Mueller, Illinois State Museum.

Native prairie and forest distribution in Illinois. Map by James S. Oliver, Illinois State Museum.

Prairie fire. Watercolor by Rudolf Friedrich Kurz, 1800s. Musée d'ethnographie, Genève (No. 6536). From: Ernst J. Kläy and Hans Läng. 1984. Das romantische Leben der Indianer malerisch darzustellen. Verlag AARE Solothurn. (P. 97)

Big bluestem (Andropogon gerardii). Photograph by Pietra Mueller, Illinois State Museum.

Indian grass (Sorghastrum nutans). Photograph by Pietra Mueller, Illinois State Museum.

Prairie cordgrass (Spartina pectinata). Photograph by Pietra Mueller, Illinois State Museum.

Sideoats grama (Bouteloua curtipendula). Photograph by Pietra Mueller, Illinois State Museum.

Oak-hickory forest in southern Illinois. Photograph by Michael R. Jeffords. Courtesy of Dr. Michael R. Jeffords, Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Illinois. From: Michael R. Jeffords, et al. 1995. Illinois wilds. Phoenix, Urbana, Illinois. (P. 129)

Oak-ash-maple forest in southeastern Illinois. Photograph by Michael R. Jeffords. Courtesy of Dr. Michael R. Jeffords, Illinois Natural History Survey, Champaign, Illinois. From: Michael R. Jeffords, et al. 1995. Illinois wilds. Phoenix, Urbana, Illinois. (P. 108)

Bald cypress (Taxodium distichum) swamp in southern Illinois. Photograph by Gary Andrashko, Illinois State Museum.

Animals
Buffalo bull, grazing. Color lithograph by George Catlin, 1844. Illinois State Museum, Springfield.

Gray wolf (Canis lupus). Watercolor by John James Audubon, 1851-54. From: John J. Audubon. 1979. The complete Audubon, Vol. V, Quadrupeds of America. Volair Books, Kent. (Pl. 67)

Black bear (Ursus americanus). Watercolor by John James Audubon, 1851-54. From: John J. Audubon. 1979. The complete Audubon, Vol. V, Quadrupeds of America. Volair Books, Kent. (Pl. 141)

Mountain lion (Felis concolor). Watercolor by John James Audubon, 1851-54. From: John J. Audubon. 1979. The complete Audubon, Vol. V, Quadrupeds of America. Volair Books, Kent. (Pl. 97)

American elk, or wapiti (Cervus elaphus). Watercolor by John James Audubon, 1851-54. From: John J. Audubon. 1979. The complete Audubon, Vol. V, Quadrupeds of America. Volair Books, Kent. (Pl. 62)

White-tailed deer (Odocoileus virginianus). Watercolor by John James Audubon, 1851-54. From: John J. Audubon. 1979. The complete Audubon, Vol. V, Quadrupeds of America. Volair Books, Kent. (Pl. 136)

Carolina parakeet (Conuropsis carolinensis). Color lithograph by John James Audubon, 1840-44. Illinois State Museum, Springfield.

Passenger pigeon (Ectopistes migratorius). Color lithograph by John James Audubon, 1840-44. Illinois State Museum, Springfield.

Ivory-billed woodpecker (Campephilus principalis). Color lithograph by John James Audubon, 1840-44. Illinois State Museum, Springfield.

Eskimo curlew (Numenius borealis). Color lithograph by John James Audubon, 1840-44. Illinois State Museum, Springfield.

Tubercled blossom (Epioblasma torulosa). Drawing by John L. Tottenham. From: John B. Burch. 1973. Freshwater unionacean clams (Mollusca: Pelecypoda) of North America. Biota of Freshwater Ecosystems Identification Manual No. 11. U.S. Government Printing Office, Washington, D.C. (P. 114)

The Illinois

Drawing of Indians of several nations, New Orleans, 1735 (Desseins de Sauvages de Plusieurs Nations, Nue Orleans, 1735). Colored pen and ink by Alexandre de Batz, 1735. Courtesy of Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Photograph by Hillel Burger. Copyright ©Pres. and Fellows of Harvard College.

Identity
Illinois Indians visiting New Orleans, 1735 (detail from Desseins de Sauvages de Plusieurs Nations, Nue Orleans, 1735). Colored pen and ink by Alexandre de Batz, 1735. Courtesy of Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Photograph by Hillel Burger. Copyright ©Pres. and Fellows of Harvard College.

Illinois Indian tribes, 1680-present. Graphic by Robert E. Warren and Jason Arnold, Illinois State Museum.

-Language
Illinois: excerpt from the Illinois-French dictionary compiled by Jean le Boullenger, 1725. Courtesy of the John Carter Brown Library at Brown University, Providence, Rhode Island.

-Territory
Contraction of Illinois Indian territory, 1650-1832. Map by Robert E. Warren and James S. Oliver, Illinois State Museum. From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall. 1998. Illini Indians in the Illinois Country, 1673-1832. The Living Museum, 60(1): 4-8. (P. 4)

-Appearance
Illinois Indians visiting New Orleans, 1735 (detail from Desseins de Sauvages de Plusieurs Nations, Nue Orleans, 1735). Colored pen and ink by Alexandre de Batz, 1735. Courtesy of Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Photograph by Hillel Burger. Copyright ©Pres. and Fellows of Harvard College.

-Clothing
Illinois man, woman, and child visiting New Orleans, 1735 (detail from Desseins de Sauvages de Plusieurs Nations, Nue Orleans, 1735). Colored pen and ink by Alexandre de Batz, 1735. Courtesy of Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Photograph by Hillel Burger. Copyright ©Pres. and Fellows of Harvard College.

-Hair Styles
Hair styles of Illinois man, woman, and child visiting New Orleans, 1735 (detail from Desseins de Sauvages de Plusieurs Nations, Nue Orleans, 1735). Colored pen and ink by Alexandre de Batz, 1735. Courtesy of Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Photograph by Hillel Burger. Copyright ©Pres. and Fellows of Harvard College.

-Ornaments
Kee-mo-ra-ni-a, or No English, a Peoria man. Oil on canvas by George Catlin in the Fort Leavenworth area, 1830. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

Illinois quilled necklace (reproduction). Woven bison hair and wool decorated with dyed porcupine quills (black, white, orange, green), brass tinkling cones, dyed deer-hair tassels (orange), and split owl feathers. Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Illinois State Museum (Length = 66 cm).

-Tattoos and Body Paint
Tattoos and body paint on three Illinois men visiting New Orleans, 1735 (detail from Desseins de Sauvages de Plusieurs Nations, Nue Orleans, 1735). Colored pen and ink by Alexandre de Batz, 1735. Courtesy of Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Photograph by Hillel Burger. Copyright ©Pres. and Fellows of Harvard College.

•Economy
Illinois woman with some of the produce from her garden, including corn, beans, squash, and watermelon. Courtesy of Dickson Mounds Museum, Lewistown, Illinois.

-Food
Indians of the Secotan Tribe cooking a stew of corn, meat, and fish. Illinois Indians prepared a similar dish, which they called "sagamité." The Secotan Tribe lived historically in what is today eastern North Carolina. Courtesy of Dover Publications, Mineola, New York. From: Thomas Harriot. 1972. A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia. Reprint of the 1590 Theodor de Bry edition. Dover Publications, New York. (P. 60)

-Agriculture
Closeup of Illinois woman with some of the produce from her garden, including corn, beans, squash, and watermelon. Most crops raised by the Illinois were domesticated in prehistoric times by American Indians in living in the New World. However, watermelons (Colocynthis citrullus) were domesticated in Africa and later introduced to North America by Spanish colonists living in what is today Florida or New Mexico. Courtesy of Dickson Mounds Museum, Lewistown, Illinois.

-Hunting and Fishing
Indian bison hunt on foot. Drawing by M. Le Page Du Pratz, 1758. Courtesy of Claitor's Publishing Division, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. From: Du Pratz, M. Le Page. 1972. The history of Louisiana. Claitor's Publishing, Baton Rouge, Louisiana. (P. 296)

-Gathering
Yellow pond lily (Nuphar advena). Courtesy of the New York Botanical Garden, Bronx, New York. From: Harold William Rickett. 1966. Wild flowers of the United States, Vol. 1, the northeastern states. McGraw-Hill, New York. (P. 105) Used with permission.

Drawing of yellow pond lily (Nuphar advena) showing large rootstock. Courtesy of Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library, Ithaca, New York. From: Walter Conrad Muenscher. 1944. Aquatic plants of the United States. Cornell University Press, Ithaca, New York. (P. 238)

-Feasts
Rene-Robert Cavalier, Sieur de La Salle, being feasted in the Illinois village at Lake Peoria, 1680. Oil on canvas by George Catlin, 1847-1848 (0.42 x 0.605 m). Catlin, who painted the scene more than 160 years after the event, mistakenly portrayed the Illinois as Plains Indians in dress and house type. Courtesy of Paul Mellon Collection, Copyright © 2000 Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

-Settlements
Annual cycle of Illinois settlement and subsistence activities. Original graphic by Robert E. Warren. From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall. 1998. Illini Indians in the Illinois Country, 1673-1832. The Living Museum, 60(1): 4-8. (P. 7)

Indians of the north leaving on a winter hunt with their families. Drawing originally published by M. Le Page Du Pratz, 1758. Courtesy of The British Library, London.

-Trade
Map of Illinois Indian trade routes: 1673-1700. Map by Robert E. Warren and James S. Oliver, Illinois State Museum.

A female slave affiliated with the "Renard" (Fox or Mesquakie) tribe, who accompanied Illinois Indians on a visit to New Orleans in 1735 (detail from Desseins de Sauvages de Plusieurs Nations, Nue Orleans, 1735). Colored pen and ink by Alexandre de Batz, 1735. Courtesy of Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Photograph by Hillel Burger. Copyright ©Pres. and Fellows of Harvard College.

Chicago and old Fort Dearborn in 1820. Watercolor by Seth Eastman based on an 1820 sketch by Henry Rowe Schoolcraft. Courtesy of W. Duncan MacMillan, Afton Historical Society Press, Afton, Minnesota. From: Sarah E. Boehme, Christian F. Feest, and Patricia C. Johnston. 1995. Seth Eastman: a portfolio of North American Indians. Afton Historical Society Press, Afton, Minnesota. (Pl. 49, p. 127)

-Division of Labor
Iroquois woman grinding maize or dried berries, 1664. Engraving by unidentified engraver. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. From: Alvin M. Josephy, Jr. 1994, 500 Nations: an illustrated history of North American Indians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. (P. 46)

•Technology
Collage of artifacts: (1) wooden bowl carved in the form of a beaver. Kaskaskia Illinois, pre-1797. Courtesy of Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography, Harvard University (transparency T1231); (2) catlinite pendants from the River L'Abbe Mission site, a Cahokia Illinois village (1735-1752) located in Madison County, Illinois. Photograph by Robert E. Warren. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1988-99.39a-c; lengths = 19-21 mm); (3) silver gorget, modified from a British sword guard, from the Waterman site, a Michigamea Illinois village (1752-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Photograph by Robert E. Warren. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.131; length = 71 mm); (4) engraved arrow-shaft wrench made from a bison rib. From the Guebert site, a Kaskaskia Illinois village (1719-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Photograph by Robert E. Warren. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1952.34; length = 175 mm); (5) chipped-stone arrowheads from the Waterman site, a Michigamea Illinois village (1752-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Ruth Gilster collection. Photograph by Robert E. Warren, Illinois State Museum.

-Houses
Illinois longhouse, a large structure occupied by up to ten families in summer villages. Drawings by Lynn E. Alden, Illinois State Museum.

Illinois wigwam, a small structure occupied by one or two families in winter villages. Drawings by Lynn E. Alden (exterior view) and Sue Huitt (interior view), Illinois State Museum.

-Tools and Utensils

-Wood
Wooden bowl carved in the form of a beaver. Kaskaskia, pre-1797. Courtesy of Peabody Museum of Archaeology and Ethnography, Harvard University (transparency T1231).

-Bone and Antler
Engraved arrow-shaft wrench made from a bison rib. From the Guebert site, a Kaskaskia Illinois village (1719-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Photograph by Robert E. Warren. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1952.34; length = 175 mm).

Hoe blade made from the scapula (shoulder blade) of a bison. From the Zimmerman site, a Kaskaskia Illinois village (1673-1722) located in La Salle County, Illinois. Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1947.56; length = 371 mm).

Drawing of a bison-scapula hoe, composed of the shoulder blade of a bison lashed to a wood handle. Line drawing by Frederick N. Wilson. Courtesy of Gilbert L. and Frederick N. Wilson Papers, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, and American Museum of Natural History Library, New York.

-Shell
Scraper made from a freshwater mussel shell (the black sandshell, Ligumia recta). Recovered from archaeological excavations at the Weaver site, a prehistoric village located in Fulton County, Illinois. Based on historical descriptions, the Illinois used shell scrapers to remove maize kernels from the cob. Photograph by Robert E. Warren, Illinois State Museum.

-Chipped Stone
Chipped-stone arrowheads from the Waterman site, a Michigamea Illinois village (1752-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Ruth Gilster collection. Photograph by Robert E. Warren, Illinois State Museum.

-Ground Stone
Men-son-se-ah, or Left Hand, a Piankashaw man holding a hatchet with a ground-stone head. Oil on canvas by George Catlin in the Fort Leavenworth area, 1830. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

-Containers
Illinois pottery vessel from the Zimmerman site (Grand Village of the Kaskaskia), La Salle County, Illinois (c. 1673-1722). Danner grooved paddle type, reconstructed. Photograph by Kelvin Sampson. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1947-56). From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall. 1998. Illini archaeology: cultural heritage and repatriation. The Living Museum 60(2): 3, 10-14. (p. 12)

-Weapons
Chipped-stone arrowheads from the Guebert site, a Kaskaskia Illinois village (1719-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Ruth Gilster collection. Photograph by Robert E. Warren, Illinois State Museum.

Illinois man holding a bow and arrow (detail from Desseins de Sauvages de Plusieurs Nations, Nue Orleans, 1735). Colored pen and ink by Alexandre de Batz, 1735. Courtesy of Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Photograph by Hillel Burger. Copyright ©Pres. and Fellows of Harvard College.

Arrowheads made of imported European gun flints (a-b) and bottle glass (c-d). Artifacts (a-c) are from the Waterman site, a Michigamea Illinois village (1752-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois; (d) is from the Guebert site, a Kaskaskia Illinois village (1719-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Ruth Gilster collection. Photograph by Robert E. Warren, Illinois State Museum.

Antler spear point from the Starved Rock site, a Peoria Illinois village (1711-1722) located in La Salle County, Illinois. Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1953.92.0021; length = 70 mm). From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall. 1998. Illini archaeology: cultural heritage and repatriation. The Living Museum 60(2): 3, 10-14. (p. 12)

Illinois man holding a flintlock gun. Dickson Mounds Museum.

-Transportation
Indians of the Secotan tribe, who lived historically in what is today eastern North Carolina, hollowing out a log with fire and scraping tools to make a dugout boat. Illinois Indians probably fashioned their dugouts in the same way. Courtesy of Dover Publications, Inc., Mineola, New York. From: Thomas Harriot. 1972. A briefe and true report of the new found land of Virginia. Reprint of the 1590 Theodor de Bry edition. Dover Publications, New York. (P. 55)

Horses at St. Louis. Watercolor by Rudolf Friedrich Kurz, 1848. Kunstmuseum, Bern (I/39). From: Ernst J. Kläy and Hans Läng. 1984. Das romantische Leben der Indianer malerisch darzustellen. Verlag AARE Solothurn. (P. 39)

-European Trade Goods
European trade goods commonly provided to American Indians in exchange for furs and hides. From: Carolyn Gilman. 1982. Where two worlds meet. Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul.

Brass kettle from the Jamestown site, Perry County, Illinois (c. 1700-1765). Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1993-59.1; maximum diameter = 31 cm). From: Elizabeth Dick. 1999. Cultural heritage and repatriation: a personal view. The Living Museum 60(4): 10-11. (P. 11)

Brass arrowheads from the Waterman site, a Michigamea Illinois village (1752-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Irvin Peithmann collection. Illinois State Museum transparency (ISM 1979-114).

Brass tinkling cones from the Waterman site, a Michigamea Illinois village (1752-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.13; lengths = 16-18 mm).

Iron knife with bone handle from the Waterman site, a Michigamea Illinois village (1752-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.49; length = 213 mm).

Iron ax head from the Waterman site, a Michigamea Illinois village (1752-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.51; length = 135 mm).

Brass bells from the Waterman site, a Michigamea Illinois village (1752-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Four bells are covered with vermilion, a red pigment. Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.58; diameters = 12-16 mm).

Brass Jesuit rings from the Starved Rock site, a Peoria Illinois village (1711-1722) located in La Salle County, Illinois. Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1953-92.7-16; diameters = 19-22 mm). From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall. 1998. Illini archaeology: cultural heritage and repatriation. The Living Museum 60(2): 3, 10-14. (p. 12)

Crescent-shaped engraved silver gorget from the Waterman site, a Michigamea Illinois village (1752-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.186; length = 134 mm).

Drawing of crescent-shaped engraved silver gorget from the Waterman site, a Michigamea Illinois village (1752-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.186; length = 134 mm).

Lead cross from the Guebert site, a Kaskaskia Illinois village (1719-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1952-34.1; length = 27 mm).

Silver bracelets from the Waterman site, a Michigamea Illinois village (1752-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.190a-b; width = 18 mm).

Crescent-shaped engraved silver gorget from the Waterman site, a Michigamea Illinois village (1752-1765) located in Randolph County, Illinois. Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.186; length = 134 mm).

Glass trade beads from the River L'Abbe Mission site, a Cahokia Illinois village (1735-1752) located in Madison County, Illinois. Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1988-99.10, ISM 1988-99.11, ISM 1988-99.12; average diameter = 3 mm). From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall. 1998. Illini archaeology: cultural heritage and repatriation. The Living Museum 60(2): 3, 10-14. (p. 12)

Society
Illinois Indians visiting New Orleans, 1735 (detail from Desseins de Sauvages de Plusieurs Nations, Nue Orleans, 1735). Colored pen and ink by Alexandre de Batz, 1735. Courtesy of Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Photograph by Hillel Burger. Copyright ©Pres. and Fellows of Harvard College.

-Family
Illinois man, woman, and child visiting New Orleans, 1735 (detail from Desseins de Sauvages de Plusieurs Nations, Nue Orleans, 1735). Colored pen and ink by Alexandre de Batz, 1735. Courtesy of Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Photograph by Hillel Burger. Copyright ©Pres. and Fellows of Harvard College.

-Leaders
Capitaine de La Nation des Illinois. Drawing by Louis Nicolas, c.1675. Courtesy of the Gilcrease Museum, Tulsa, Oklahoma. Web address: www.gilcrease.org. From: Baron Marc de Villiers. 1974. Les Raretes des Indes, "Codex Canadiensis." Les Editions du Bouton d'Or, Montreal.

-Warfare
Indian of the Nation of the Kaskaskia. Engraving from a sketch by General George-Victor Collot when he visited Illinois in 1796. From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall. 1998. Illini Indians in the Illinois Country, 1673-1832. The Living Museum, 60(1): 4-8. (P. 6)

-Social Status
Pah-me-cow-ee-tah, or Man who Tracks, an Illinois (Peoria) chief. Oil on canvas by George Catlin in the Fort Leavenworth area, 1830. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

Wah-pe-seh-see, a Kaskaskia woman (mother of Little Chief). Oil on canvas by George Catlin, 1830. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

-Recreation
Game of lacrosse being played by members of the Choctaw tribe. Color lithograph by George Catlin, 1844 (based on a sketch by George Catlin in the Fort Gibson area, 1834). Illinois State Museum, Springfield.

-Lacrosse
Game of lacrosse being played by members of the Choctaw tribe.Color lithograph by George Catlin, 1844 (based on a sketch by George Catlin in the Fort Gibson area, 1834). Illinois State Museum, Springfield.

-Straw Game
Straw game of the Illinois Indians: (a) grasp bundle of 200 straws with both hands; (b) split bundle in two with thumb; (c) count out straws by sixes; (d) determine the number of remaining straws. Photographs by Gary Andrashko, Illinois State Museum.

-Plum-Stone Dice
Scoring system for the plum-stone dice game (based on scoring system of Cheyenne tribe). Graphic by Robert E. Warren and Sue Huitt, Illinois State Museum. Information From: Stewart Culin. 1975. Games of the North American Indians. [Reprint of 1907 edition] Dover, New York. (P. 72); George Bird Grinnell. 1972. The Cheyenne Indians: their history and ways of life. Volume 1. University of Nebraska Press, Lincoln. (P. 332-334)

Plum-stone dice game of the Illinois Indians: (a) 2 reds and 3 yellows score 8 points; (b) 2 browns and 3 yellows score 3 points; (c) 5 browns score 1 point; (d) 1 red, 2 yellows, and 2 browns score 0 points (Cheyenne scoring system). Photographs by Robert E. Warren, Illinois State Museum.

-Neighbors
Not-o-way, or The Thinker, an Iroquois chief. Oil on canvas by George Catlin, probably painted at Fort Snelling or Sault Ste. Marie, 1835-1836. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

Shon-ka-ki-he-ga, or Horse Chief, a Pawnee chief. Oil on canvas by George Catlin at Fort Leavenworth, 1832. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

Big Sail, an Ottawa chief. Oil on canvas by George Catlin, probably painted at Mackinac, 1836. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

-Native American Allies
Tal-lee, an Osage man. Oil on canvas by George Catlin at Fort Gibson, 1834. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

Go-to-kow-pah-a, or He Who Stands by Himself, a Wea man. Oil on canvas by George Catlin in the Fort Leavenworth area, 1830. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

On-saw-kie, or The Sauk, a Potawatomi man. Oil on canvas by George Catlin in the Fort Leavenworth area, 1830. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

-Native American Enemies
Wah-chee-hahs-ka or Man Who Puts All Out of Doors, a Winnebago (Ho-Chunk) man. Oil on canvas by George Catlin at Prairie du Chien, 1835. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

Good Hunter, a Seneca (Iroquois) man. Oil on canvas by George Catlin in Washington, 1831. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

La-doo-ke-a or Buffalo Bull, a Pawnee man. Oil on canvas by George Catlin, 1832. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

-The French (1673-1763)
French traders exchanging European goods for furs obtained by their American Indian trading partners. Decorative detail from "Map of the inhabited part of Canada, from the French surveys" by William Faden, 1777. Courtesy of the Library of Congress, Washington, D.C. From: Alvin M. Josephy, Jr. 1994, 500 Nations: an illustrated history of North American Indians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. (P. 228)

Arrival of Marquette and Jolliet at the Grand Village of the Kaskaskia, 1673. Painting by Robert A. Thom, 1967. Courtesy of the Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield. From: Judith A. Franke. 1995. French Peoria and the Illinois Country: 1673-1846. Popular Science Series Vol. 12. Illinois State Museum, Springfield. (Pl. 2)

Fort de Chartres on the Mississippi River. This was the third and last Fort de Chartres, a stone fortress that was completed by the French in 1755 but passed into the hands of British in 1765, two years after the conclusion of the French and Indian War. Detail from a mural in the Illinois State Capitol, Springfield. From: John Francis Bannon,, S.J. 1976. The Spaniards and the Illinois Country, 1762-1800. Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 69: 110-118. (P. 116)

French forces and their Indian allies attacking General William Braddock's English army in western Pennsylvania during the French and Indian War, 1755. Courtesy of the State Historical Society of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin. From: Alvin M. Josephy, Jr. 1994. 500 Nations: an illustrated history of North American Indians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. (Pp. 218-219)

-The British (1763-1778)
American Indian forces under command of Chief Pontiac laying siege to Fort Detroit during the 1763 rebellion against British administration of the Great Lakes region. Oil on canvas by Frederic Remington. The Granger Collection, New York. From: Alvin M. Josephy. 1994. 500 Nations: an illustrated history of North American Indians. Alfred A. Knopf, New York. (P. 255)

Map of the Mississippi River showing St. Louis and Cahokia in 1796. Detail from "A Map of the Country of the Illinois" by Gen. George H. V. Collot, based on a voyage to North America in 1796. Courtesy of Edward E. Ayer Collection, The Newberry Library, Chicago.

-The Americans (1778-1832)
Daniel Boone escorting settlers through the Cumberland Gap, 1851-52. Oil on canvas by George Caleb Bingham (36½ x 50¼ inches). Courtesy of Washington University Gallery of Art, St. Louis. Gift of Nathaniel Phillips, 1890.

George Rogers Clark speaking to Illinois Indians at Cahokia, c1778. Courtesy of George Rogers Clark National Historical Park, Vincennes, Indiana. From: Margaret K. Brown and L. C. Dean. 1995. The French colony in the mid-Mississippi valley. American Kestrel Books, Carbondale, Illinois. (P. 24)

Land cessions of Kaskaskia & Peoria tribes to the United States government, based on treaties signed in 1803 and 1818. Map by James S. Oliver, Illinois State Museum.

Beliefs
Detail of painted deer hide attributed to Illinois Indians (pre-1796): abstract thunderbird motif. Drawing by Robert E. Warren and Jason Arnold based on specimen at Musée de l'Homme, Paris (MH 78.32.134). After: E.-T. Hamy. 1898. Note sur d'anciennes peintures sur peaux des Indiens Illinois. Journal de la Societe des Americanistes 2: 193.

-Religion
Detail of painted deer hide attributed to Illinois Indians (pre-1796): abstract thunderbird motif. Drawing by Robert E. Warren and Jason Arnold based on specimen at Musée de l'Homme, Paris (MH 78.32.134). After: E.-T. Hamy. 1898. Note sur d'anciennes peintures sur peaux des Indiens Illinois. Journal de la Societe des Americanistes 2: 193.

-Piasa
Drawing of the Piasa observed by Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet on their 1673 voyage down the Mississippi River. From a map drawn by Jean-Baptiste Louis Franquelin, 1678. From: Judith A. Franke. 1995. French Peoria and the Illinois Country: 1673-1846. Popular Science Series Vol. 12. Illinois State Museum, Springfield. (P. 11)

-Manitou
The Illinois communicated with the supernatural world using personal spirits, called manitous, which took the form of bison, wolves, mountain lions, birds, and other animals. (1) Bison (Bison bison): Buffalo bull, grazing. Color lithograph by George Catlin, 1844. Illinois State Museum, Springfield.; (2) Gray wolf (Canis lupus): Watercolor by John James Audubon, 1851-54. From: John J. Audubon. 1979. The complete Audubon, Vol. V, Quadrupeds of America. Volair Books, Kent. (Pl. 67); (3) Mountain lion (Felis concolor): Watercolor by John James Audubon, 1851-54. From: John J. Audubon. 1979. The complete Audubon, Vol. V, Quadrupeds of America. Volair Books, Kent. (Pl. 97); (4) Sparrow hawk (Falco sparverius): Color lithograph by John James Audubon, 1840-44. Illinois State Museum, Springfield.

-Calumet
Calumet pipe from Lewis & Clark expedition, 1804-1805 (probably Mandan). Courtesy of Peabody Museum, Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Photograph by Hillel Burger. Copyright ©Pres. and Fellows of Harvard College. From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall. 1998. Illini Indians in the Illinois Country, 1673-1832. The Living Museum, 60(1): 4-8. (P. 4)

-Health
Medicine man curing a patient. Original lithograph based on a watercolor by Seth Eastman, 1853. Courtesy of Robert E. Warren, Springfield, Illinois.

-Death
Indian burial at Kee-waw-nay, a Potawatomi village, 1837. In the late 1600s, the Illinois erected log structures over their graves similar to the one shown here. Watercolor by George Winter, 1863-71. Courtesy of Tippecanoe County Historical Association, Lafayatte, Indiana. Gift of Mrs. Cable G. Ball.

-Folklore
George Washington Finley or Ta-wah-quah-ke-non-guah (1858-1932), United Peoria and Miami Tribe. Courtesy of Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Miami, Oklahoma. From: Dorris Valley and Mary M. Lembcke. 1991. The Peorias: a history of the Peoria Indian tribe of Oklahoma. The Peoria Indian Tribe of Oklahoma, Miami, Oklahoma. (P. 199)

Nancy Stand, United Peoria and Miami Tribe. Courtesy of Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Miami, Oklahoma. From: Dorris Valley and Mary M. Lembcke. 1991. The Peorias: a history of the Peoria Indian tribe of Oklahoma. The Peoria Indian Tribe of Oklahoma, Miami, Oklahoma. (P. 92)

Art and Music
Detail of Painted deer hide attributed to Illinois Indians (pre-1796): arrowhead and broken diamond motif. Drawing by Robert E. Warren and Jason Arnold based on specimen at Musée de l'Homme, Paris (MH 78.32.131). After: E.-T. Hamy. 1898. Note sur d'anciennes peintures sur peaux des Indiens Illinois. Journal de la Societe des Americanistes 2: 185-195. (Pl. III)

-Art
Painted deer hide attributed to Illinois Indians (pre-1796): arrowhead and broken diamond motif. Drawing by Robert E. Warren and Jason Arnold based on specimen at Musée de l'Homme, Paris (MH 78.32.131). After: E.-T. Hamy. 1898. Note sur d'anciennes peintures sur peaux des Indiens Illinois. Journal de la Societe des Americanistes 2: 185-195. (Pl. III)

Painted deer hide attributed to Illinois Indians (pre-1796): abstract forks motif. Drawing by Robert E. Warren and Jason Arnold based on specimen at Musée de l'Homme, Paris (MH 78.32.132). After: E.-T. Hamy. 1898. Note sur d'anciennes peintures sur peaux des Indiens Illinois. Journal de la Societe des Americanistes 2: 185-195. (P. 191)

Painted deer hide attributed to Illinois Indians (pre-1796): abstract disjointed forks motif. Drawing by Robert E. Warren and Jason Arnold based on specimen at Musée de l'Homme, Paris (MH 78.32.133). After: E.-T. Hamy. 1898. Note sur d'anciennes peintures sur peaux des Indiens Illinois. Journal de la Societe des Americanistes 2: 185-195. (P. 195)

Painted deer hide attributed to Illinois Indians (pre-1796): abstract thunderbird motif. Drawing by Robert E. Warren and Jason Arnold based on specimen at Musée de l'Homme, Paris (MH 78.32.134). After: E.-T. Hamy. 1898. Note sur d'anciennes peintures sur peaux des Indiens Illinois. Journal de la Societe des Americanistes 2: 185-195. (P. 193)

Wooden bowl carved in the form of a beaver; eyes inset with brass tacks. Kaskaskia Tribe, 1795. Courtesy of University of Pennsylvania Museum, Philadelphia (transparency T4-431).

-Music
Song of the calumet dance. Words and musical notation recorded by Jacques Marquette during his 1673 visit to the Illinois Indians. After: Reuben Gold Thwaites. 1959. The Jesuit relations and allied documents, vol. 59. Pageant, New York. (P. 311). Transcription and midi recording by Ray Ferguson, Emeritus Professor of Music, Wayne State University, Detroit, Michigan.

Kee-mon-saw, or Little Chief, a Kaskaskia chief, holding wooden flute. Oil on canvas by George Catlin, 1830. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

History
When & Where: Time line of Illinois Indian history in the context of Euro-American cultural and political events. From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall. 1998. Illini Indians in the Illinois Country, 1673-1832. The Living Museum, 60(1): 4-8. (P. 5)

-European Contact
Jesuit map of Lake Superior (or Tracy) and parts of Lakes Huron and Michigan. Map drafted by an anonymous cartographer, probably Claude Dablon or Claude Allouez, 1671. From: Reuben Gold Thwaites. 1959. The Jesuit relations and allied documents, vol. 55. Pageant, New York. (P. 94)

Pere Jacques Marquette, S.J. Pastel on paper by John A. Nielson (27½ x 21½ inches). Courtesy of the Patrick and Beatrice Haggerty Museum of Art, Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. Copyright ©2000 Marquette University. All Rights reserved. No part of this image may be reproduced without the written permission of Marquette University, Milwaukee, Wisconsin 53233, USA.

-Exploration
Arrival of Marquette and Jolliet at the Grand Village of the Kaskaskia, 1673. Painting by Robert A. Thom, 1967. Courtesy of the Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield. From: Judith A. Franke. 1995. French Peoria and the Illinois Country: 1673-1846. Popular Science Series Vol. 12. Illinois State Museum, Springfield. (Pl. 2)

Map of Marquette and Jolliet's exploration of the Mississippi River valley, 1673. Courtesy of Dr. Charles J. Balesi, Highland Park, Illinois. From: Charles J. Balesi. 1992. The time of the French in the heart of North America, 1673-1818. Alliance Française, Chicago. (P. 19)

-Fur-Trade Empire
La Salle at the mouth of the Mississippi River claiming Louisiana for France, 1682. Oil on canvas by George Catlin, 1847-1848 (0.378 x 0.564 m). Courtesy of Paul Mellon Collection, Copyright © 2000 Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

La Salle presenting a petition to Louis XIV, King of France. Drawing by Adrien Moreau. From: Francis Parkman. 1980. La Salle and the discovery of the great west: France and England in North America. Reprint of 1897 edition. Corner House Publishers, Williamstown, Massachusetts. (Frontispiece, P. ii)

Map of La Salle's Colony on the Illinois River (1682-1688), showing the locations of Fort St. Louis at Starved Rock, Fort Crèvecoeur near Lake Pimetoui, and Indian villages occupied by the Illinois (Ilinois), Miami (Miamy), Wea (Oiatenon), Piankashaw (Peanghichia), and Shawnee (Chaouenon) tribes. After the map of Jean-Baptiste Louis Franquelin, 1684. From: Francis Parkman. 1980. La Salle and the discovery of the great west: France and England in North America. Reprint of 1897 edition. Corner House Publishers, Williamstown, Massachusetts. (P. 314)

-The Illinois Decline
Decline of Illinois Indian population, 1677-1765. Graph by Robert E. Warren, Illinois State Museum. From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall. 1998. Illini Indians in the Illinois Country, 1673-1832. The Living Museum, 60(1): 4-8. (P. 8)

Henry de Tonty seeking peace with the Iroquois at the Grand Village of the Kaskaskia, September, 1680. Tonty was not successful; the Iroquois pursued the Illinois and killed or captured more than 700 Tamaroa Illinois near the mouth of the Illinois River. Oil on canvas by George Catlin, 1847-1848 (0.378 x 0.564 m). Courtesy of Paul Mellon Collection, Copyright © 2000 Board of Trustees, National Gallery of Art, Washington, D.C.

Native drawing of a person suffering from smallpox or measles. Pigment on muslin drawing by Blue Thunder (Teton Dakota) from his winter count for the year 1845. Courtesy of State Historical Society of North Dakota, Bismarck (86.234.22). From: Stanley A. Ahler, Thomas D. Thiessen, and Michael K. Trimble. 1991. People of the willows: the prehistory and early history of the Hidatsa Indians. University of North Dakota Press, Grand Forks. (P. 57)

-The Illinois Today
Chief Ron Froman, Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma. Courtesy of Peoria Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma, Miami, Oklahoma. From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall 1998. Illini Indians in the Illinois Country, 1673-1832. The Living Museum 60(1): 4-8. (P. 8)

Archaeology
Archaeological field crew at the Zimmerman site, 1947. Directors of the excavations were Dr. John C. McGregor of the Illinois State Museum (front row, fourth from left) and Dr. Kenneth G. Orr of the University of Chicago (front row, second from left). Illinois State Museum (ISM 1947-56).

-Illinois Villages
Detail from "Carte de la Louisiane et du cours du Mississipi." Map by Guillaume Delisle, 1718. Courtesy of Division of Rare and Manuscript Collections, Cornell University Library, Ithaca, New York (Rare UA 993 C18++, No 30C2, Campaigns in North America).

Archaeological excavation at the Zimmerman site, 1947, looking southwest toward Starved Rock. Zimmerman is the probable location of the Grand Village of the Kaskaskia, which was visited by Jacques Marquette and Louis Jolliet in 1673. Illinois State Museum (ISM 1947-56).

Archaeological sites occupied historically by the Illinois Indians and their French neighbors. Map by James S. Oliver, Illinois State Museum.

-Zimmerman Site
Archaeological excavation at the Zimmerman site, 1947. At left is Dr. John C. McGregor of the Illinois State Museum; in foreground is Professor T. Barton Akeley of Olivet College. Illinois State Museum (ISM 1947-56).

Hoe blade made from the scapula (shoulder blade) of a bison. From the Zimmerman site, a Kaskaskia Illinois village (1673-1722) located in La Salle County, Illinois. Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1947.56; length = 371 mm).

Drawing of a bison-scapula hoe, composed of the shoulder blade of a bison lashed to a wood handle. Line drawing by Frederick N. Wilson. Courtesy of Gilbert L. and Frederick N. Wilson Papers, Minnesota Historical Society, St. Paul, and American Museum of Natural History Library, New York.

Illinois pottery vessel from the Zimmerman site, La Salle County, Illinois (c. 1673-1722). Danner grooved paddle type, reconstructed. Photograph by Kelvin Sampson. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1947-56). From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall. 1998. Illini archaeology: cultural heritage and repatriation. The Living Museum 60(2): 3, 10-14. (p. 12)

Archaeologist Elaine A. Bluhm excavating a rock concentration (Feature A-5) at the Zimmerman site, 1947. Rock concentrations may mark the locations of sweat lodges, in which water was splashed on heated stones to create steam. Illinois State Museum (ISM 1947-56).

Woman entering a sweat lodge at a Hidatsa Indian village in the northern Great Plains. Great Lakes tribes commonly used sweat lodges as places to perform certain rituals or ceremonies. Sketch by Rudolf F. Kurz, 1851. Courtesy of Ethnography Department, Bernisches Historisches Museum, Bern, Switzerland. From: Stanley A. Ahler et al. 1991. People of the willows: the prehistory and early history of the Hidatsa Indians. University of North Dakota Press, Grand Forks. (P. 19)

Roasting pit (Feature A-33) being excavated at the Zimmerman site, 1947. Pits like this may have been used to roast tubers of the macopine and other plants, which were gathered from marshes and prepared as a food resource. Illinois State Museum (ISM 1947-56).

Cross-section of roasting pit (Feature A-33) at the Zimmerman site, showing the layers of fire-cracked rock, charcoal, and charred logs. From: James A. Brown. 1961. The Zimmerman site: a report on excavations at the Grand Village of Kaskaskia, La Salle County, Illinois. Report of Investigations No. 9. Illinois State Museum, Springfield. (P. 26)

-Starved Rock Site
Starved Rock, La Salle County, Illinois. Photograph by Frank Thone, 1922. Illinois State Museum (ISM 1953-92). From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall. 1998. Illini archaeology: cultural heritage and repatriation. The Living Museum 60(2): 3, 10-14. (p. 11)

Aerial view of Starved Rock, La Salle County, Illinois (looking south). Undated photograph, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1953-92).

Archaeological excavations at the Starved Rock site, 1949. Archaeologists passed the excavated sediment through metal screens mounted on wood frames, as seen at the right, to systematize the recovery of artifacts. Illinois State Museum (ISM 1957-97).

Archaeologist Richard Hagen standing in the excavated cellar (Feature 13) at Starved Rock, 1949. The cellar probably underlay a powder magazine or warehouse built in 1683 as part of La Salle's Fort St. Louis. Strings mark a grid of 5-foot squares used to orient the 1949 excavations. Illinois State Museum (ISM 1957-97).

Drawing of a lead bale seal recovered from a cellar (Feature 13) at Starved Rock. The seal has a string of characters ("F•L•14•R") that evidently signify the royal seal of Louis XIV, King of France (1643-1715). From: Allan Ray Westover. 1984. A history of the archeological investigations at Starved Rock, Illinois. Master's thesis, Illinois State University. (P. 101)

Brass Jesuit rings from the grave of an Illinois infant buried at Starved Rock. Based on the styles of rings represented, the burial is probably affiliated with the Peoria tribe's 1711-1722 occupation at Starved Rock and the nearby Hotel Plaza site. Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1953-92.7-16; diameters = 19-22 mm). From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall. 1998. Illini archaeology: cultural heritage and repatriation. The Living Museum 60(2): 3, 10-14. (p. 12)

-River L'Abbe Mission Site
Drawing of Monks Mound, a prehistoric Mississippian temple mound, from an 1873 atlas of Madison County, Illinois. The River L'Abbe Mission site, an historic Illinois Indian village and French mission, is located on the mound's first terrace. Courtesy of the Illinois State Historical Library, Springfield.

Contour map of Monks Mound, Madison County, Illinois. Excavations (black shading) on the first terrace uncovered the remains of the River L'Abbe Mission site, a Cahokia Illinois village and French chapel that were occupied from 1735 to 1752. Courtesy of Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, Springfield. From: Mikels Skele. 1988. The great knob: interpretations of Monks Mound. Studies in Illinois Archaeology No. 4. Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, Springfield. (Pp. 83, 86)

Artist's reconstruction of a French chapel that stood on the first terrace of Monks Mound from 1735 to 1752. Drawing by Carla Zedialis. Courtesy of Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, Springfield. From: John A. Walthall and Elizabeth D. Benchley. 1987. The River L'Abbe Mission: a French colonial church for the Cahokia Illini on Monks Mound. Studies in Illinois Archaeology No. 2. Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, Springfield. (P. 28)

Map of historic features uncovered in the southwestern excavation block at the River L'Abbe Mission site. The shaded rectangular structure is the French mission; the shaded oval structure is a Cahokia Illinois wigwam; other features are underground storage pits, trash pits, and Native American graves. Courtesy of Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, Springfield. From: John A. Walthall and Elizabeth D. Benchley. 1987. The River L'Abbe Mission: a French colonial church for the Cahokia Illini on Monks Mound. Studies in Illinois Archaeology No. 2. Illinois Historic Preservation Agency, Springfield. (P. 22)

Glass pendant made of melted glass trade beads from the River L'Abbe Mission site (1735-1752). Photograph by Robert E. Warren. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1988-99.52; length = 21 mm).

Glass trade beads from the River L'Abbe Mission site (1735-1752). Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1988-99.10, ISM 1988-99.11, ISM 1988-99.12; average diameter = 3 mm). From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall. 1998. Illini archaeology: cultural heritage and repatriation. The Living Museum 60(2): 3, 10-14. (p. 12)

Catlinite pendants from the River L'Abbe Mission site (1735-1752). Photograph by Robert E. Warren. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1988-99.39a-c; lengths = 19-21 mm).

Brass bell decorated with four raised fleur-de-lys designs from the River L'Abbe Mission site (1735-1752). Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1988-99.40; height = 96 mm).

Iron key from the River L'Abbe Mission site (1735-1752). Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1988-99.19; length = 66 mm). From: Elizabeth L. Dick. 1999. Cultural heritage and repatriation: a personal view. The Living Museum 60(4): 10-11. (P. 11)

-Waterman Site
Archaeological excavation at the Waterman site, Randolph County, Illinois, 1971. Illinois State Museum transparency (ISM 1979-114).

Fort de Chartres on the Mississippi River. This was the third and last Fort de Chartres, a stone fortress that was completed by the French in 1755 but passed into the hands of British in 1765, two years after the conclusion of the French and Indian War. Detail from a mural in the Illinois State Capitol, Springfield. From: John Francis Bannon, S.J. 1976. The Spaniards and the Illinois Country, 1762-1800. Journal of the Illinois State Historical Society 69: 110-118. (P. 116)

Conjectural village layout of the Waterman site, Randolph County, Illinois, showing the locations of structures, pits, human burials, and the fortification stockade. Illinois State Museum transparency (ISM 1979-114).

Excavation of House 1 at the Waterman site, Randolph County, Illinois, 1971 (looking southeast). The floor plan of the structure is rectangular (6.4 x 3.6 m); the dark rectangular stain projecting from the west wall may represent a stick-and-mud fireplace modeled after contemporary French construction. Photograph by Margaret K. Brown. Illinois State Museum transparency (ISM 1979-114).

Chipped-stone arrowheads from the Waterman site (1752-1765). Ruth Gilster collection. Photograph by Robert E. Warren, Illinois State Museum.

Stone Micmac pipe bowl from the Waterman site (1752-1765). Photograph by Robert E. Warren. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.97; length = 56 mm).

Glass brandy bottle from the Waterman site (1752-1765). Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.169; length = 247 mm). From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall. 1998. Illini archaeology: cultural heritage and repatriation. The Living Museum 60(2): 3, 10-14. (p. 12)

Silver cross from the Waterman site (1752-1765). Photograph by Robert E. Warren. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.114; length = 76 mm).

Brass cross with colored glass sets from the Waterman site (1752-1765). Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.59; width = 23 mm).

Silver bracelet with floral design from the Waterman site (1752-1765). Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.28; width = 44 mm). From: Elizabeth L. Dick. 1999. Cultural heritage and repatriation: a personal view. The Living Museum 60(4): 10-11. (P. 11)

Drawing of silver bracelet with floral design from the Waterman site (1752-1765). Drawing by Nancy L. Underwood. Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.28).

Silver gorget, modified from a British sword guard, from the Waterman site (1752-1765). Photograph by Robert E. Warren. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.131; length = 71 mm).

English silver sword hilt by William Kersill, mounted by Charles Bibb (1758-1759). The counterguard on this sword is identical to the design of the silver gorget from the Waterman site. From: J. D. Aylward. 1960. The small sword in England: its history, its forms, its makers, and its masters. 2nd edition. Hutchinson, London. (Fig. 39)

Pendant made from a broken piece of white French earthenware (faience) from the Waterman site (1752-1765). Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.197; length = 37 mm).

Brass arrowheads from the Waterman site (1752-1765). Irvin Peithmann collection. Illinois State Museum transparency (ISM 1979-114).

French pistol from the Waterman site (1752-1765). Preserved portions include an octagonal iron barrel (length = 145 mm), an iron flintlock mechanism containing a native-made gunflint, and a brass sideplate, brass trigger guard, and brass butt plate. Photograph by Gary Andrashko. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.130). From: Robert E. Warren and John A. Walthall. 1998. Illini archaeology: cultural heritage and repatriation. The Living Museum 60(2): 3, 10-14. (p. 12)

Reconstruction of French pistol from the Waterman site (1752-1765). Drawing by Nancy L. Underwood. Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.130).

Brass trigger guard of French pistol from the Waterman site (1752-1765). Photograph by Margaret K. Brown. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.130; length = 117 mm).

Drawing of brass trigger guard of French pistol from the Waterman site (1752-1765). Drawing by Nancy L. Underwood. Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.130).

Brass butt plate of French pistol from the Waterman site (1752-1765). Photograph by Margaret K. Brown. Peoria Indian Heritage Collection, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.130; length = 42 mm).

Drawing of brass butt plate of French pistol from the Waterman site (1752-1765). The central medallion, which was cast separately, is decorated with the bust of a Roman soldier wearing a plumed helmet. Drawing by Nancy L. Underwood. Illinois State Museum (ISM 1979-114.130).

-Ancestors of the Illinois Indians
Historic Illinois Indian pottery from the Zimmerman site in Illinois. La Salle cordmarked (upper left, lower left); Keating cordmarked (upper right); Danner grooved paddle (lower right). Photograph by Duane Esarey, Illinois State Museum (ISM 1947-56).

How Do We Know?
Pah-me-cow-ee-tah, or Man who Tracks, a Peoria Illinois chief. Oil on canvas by George Catlin in the Fort Leavenworth area, 1830. Courtesy of Smithsonian American Art Museum, Washington D.C. Gift of Mrs. Joseph Harrison, Jr. (http://www.nmaa.si.edu).

-Written Records
Facsimile of Pierre Delliette's "Memoir concerning the Illinois Country." Courtesy of La Salle County Historical Society, Utica, Illinois. From: Margaret K. Brown. 1973. The first Kaskaskia: the Zimmerman site. La Salle County Historical Society, Utica, Illinois. (P. 2)

-Archaeology
Professor T. Barton Akeley (Olivet College) excavating an Illinois roasting pit (Feature A-21) at the Zimmerman site, 1947. Illinois State Museum (ISM 1947-56).

   
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