An indicator of whether a particular specimen is a type specimen, and if so, what kind of type specimen. A type specimen is the original specimen from which the description of a new species is made. There are several kinds of type specimens:
- holotype - a single specimen designated as the type specimen by the original author of the original species description
- paratype - all similar specimens, other than the holotype, which were available to the original author while making the original species description, and designated as paratypes therein
- syntype - any of multiple specimens cited by the author in an original species description for which no single holotype was designated
- cotype - an older and no longer used synonym for paratype or syntype.